Reduction of Two-photon Holographic Speckle using Shift-averaging
Published by Optical Society of America Optics Express Vol. 19, Issue 27, pp. 25891-25899 (2011) https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.025891
Holographic speckle is a major impediment for the emerging applications of multiphoton holographic projection in biomedical imaging, photo-stimulation and micromachining. Time averaging of multiple shifted versions of a single hologram (“shift-averaging”) is a computationally efficient method that was recently shown to deterministically eliminate holographic speckle in single-photon applications. Here, we extend these results and show, computationally and experimentally, that in two-photon holographic excitation shift-averaging also reduces holographic speckle better than “random” averaging of multiple calculated holograms.